Counterterrorism in Public areas – article of Detektor magazine part 2.
In our previous article, we reviewed the terrorist attacks on cars, their consequences and the possibilities of proactive activation, in particular, physical barriers (concrete blocks, street furniture). In the future, we need to talk about the qualification aspects, the system and the effective protection of the buildings used.
For anti-terror bollards and anti-terror street furniture, there is certification adopted on the basis of various international standards and widely used in the industry. Knowledge of these helps the customer to make sure that the tool he chooses can actually perform his task effectively. It is important to mention that some of the non-certified devices may have protection, but these solutions are far from the capabilities of a qualified antiterror tool. Many foreign manufacturers sell rising bollards that are advertised as antiterror columns, but in many cases, they do not have a minimum or no qualified. This may be due to the fact that such a test is carried out in tens of thousands of euros and, on the other hand, the manufacturer may sometimes be aware that the device would not pass through such a test, and would not be qualified. Crash tests are primarily conducted in the United States and Europe. In the United States, primarily under the control of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). Two of the many certifications issued by ASTM are worth mentioning.
One of them: Crash Test Level M50 (K12) – in this case, the bollard is able to stop a vehicle that drives with 80 km/h and 6,8-ton weight. The second one: Crash Test Level M30 (K4) – this qualification means a vehicle that drives with 50 km/h and 6,8-ton weight will be stopped by a bollard. The following values you can see in table 1.:
The equivalents of these certifications (mainly used in Europe) are IWA 14.1 and IWA 14.2. internationally recognized standards. The certification of K4, K8, K12 have been defined by DoS (Department of State). In 1985 was it the first time and after in 2003 by DoD (Department of Defense). Between the certification of DoS or DoD and ASTM is the following:
K12 = M50; K8 = M40; K4 = M30
Our next big group is PAS certifications. There were done by the internationally renowned British BSI, which was distributed as follows. PAS 68 is the equivalent of the previously described K12 certification. Another version of PAS 69, here is a plus that in this rating it is mandatory that the maximum distance between installed columns should not exceed 1.2 meters. The third in this line is PAS 170. A device with this certification is capable of stopping a vehicle of up to 25 tonnes if it is running at approximately 15-35 km / h. The table below shows that the American ASTM certification due to local conditions (vehicle-to-vehicle differences – American vs. European standards) is not worth comparing with the PAS certification system used mainly in Europe.
In the case of PAS 68 street furniture, we can be sure that we have the right quality product. The PAS 68 tools have an iron base that is placed at least half a meter deep in the ground. Furniture is often made of a mixture of concrete and marble. This ensures that vehicles of different sizes and speeds are stopped and immobilized.
BUILDINGS AS RISK FACTORS
Impact protection is only one of the factors that we should consider. All buildings and properties can deal with a number of security risks that we need to keep in mind when planning. In addition to safety, accessibility is an outstanding aspect, but design and aesthetics are also a consideration. It is important to know the potential risks and threat points that are the most vulnerable. In the event of an attack or even accident, a vehicle can cause unpredictable damage, not to mention the occupants and pedestrians. For this reason, it is important to take into account the environment of the object to be protected and the risk of proof that might threaten those insides.
ACCESSIBILITY AND PROXIMITY TO TRAFFIC
How close are the vehicle to the building or sensitive areas? It is worth considering the surrounding streets or park place in this area?
Is the object in a high traffic area? Increased traffic increases the likelihood of accidents
SPEED OF NEARBY VEHICLES
Speed is one of the most important factors that we have to take in figuline. In both an accident and an attack, the higher speed reduces the driver’s response time and increases the vehicle’s momentum, thus increasing damage.
TRAFFIC TYPES Many types of vehicles are involved in the traffic, cars, trucks, bikes, scooters, etc. The weight of the vehicle is also an aspect of the test, as obviously a motor is not able to cause much damage as a flatbed truck. In the case of the latter vehicle, the damage caused by the weight is also proportionally increased in the event of an impact.
LOCATION OF BUILDING AND ROADS
We have to take into account the position and direction of nearby roads. Are you passing by the building? Or direct to the entrance to the building? Long, unobstructed ramps can increase your safety risk by allowing vehicles to reach higher speeds.
BEHAVIOR OF DRIVES
Executives usually move quickly near the building? What kind of environment? Eventful? in some cases, seasonal seasons may also be important.
We also need to consider the possibility of “ramming” or gassing attacks. In such cases, vehicles driving into the mass and / or building can cause significant damage to buildings and injuries to the occupants. In order to prevent the above-listed events, the important elements of the protection are the descending or fixed columns, which may be anti-terror. When designing a security plan, we need to choose the right tool for us, taking the risks into account.
In doing so, it is determined that qualified and / or non-qualified columns are used. Qualified columns offer the highest degree of security, but in many cases, they can be pepper goods. Of course, the price depends much on the desired degree of protection, a difference of 700 mm and an antiterror price of 1200 mm may be significant. It is important to note that the lifetime of these devices can be significantly extended by regular maintenance.